Eczema is a term for several different types of skin swelling and irritation. Doctors often refer to eczema as dermatitis or atopic dermatitis.  

Most types of eczema cause dry, itchy skin and rashes. Eczema can be on the face, inside the elbows, behind the knees, and on the hands and feet.  

Scratching the skin can cause it to turn red, and to swell and itch even more.